October 2015

Interviewing Half Term Assignment

I was given the task of coming up with three questions I would ask five different people in five different scenarios.

A singer in a new band which has just released a new EP

  1. What inspired you to write this EP?
  2. Was the song written as a team or by one member of the band?
  3. Why did you release the EP now?

A manager of an animal rescue centre which has had a surge in abandoned pets

  1. How many abandoned pets did you receive?
  2. How many do you expect to re-home?
  3. Why do you think so many pets have recently been abandoned?

A headteacher where 50% of the students have to re-sit GCSE English

  1. How are you going to ensure that the students pass this time?
  2. Why do you think the students didn’t pass the first time?
  3. Have this many students failed before?

A mum of  teenage girl launching a fundraising campaign to pay for lifesaving cancer treatment in America

  1. What inspired her to create this campaign?
  2. How much is she expecting to raise?
  3. What does the campaign involve?

A fire chief investigating a blaze which gutted a terraced house in Sheffield

  1. Were there any people injured?
  2. What do you suspect has happened?
  3. How severe was the incident?


This is a post on how you should conduct an interview, what types of interviews you can do and what to do throughout a face to face interview


Why conduct an interview?

  • there is only so much you can research
  • you can get the human side of the story
  • you can get an expert opinion
  • you can get challenging opinions
  • you can bring your story to life with direct quotes

How to interview?

  • DETAIL – start with what has happened
  • OPINION – what does the interviewee think about it?
  • ACTION – what is going to be done about it?

Types of interview

  • Face to face – can be time consuming, but you can pick up on how the interviewee feels about the subject by reading their body language. This allows you to improvise and ask further questions.
  • Telephone – you have to make sure you introduce yourself and not pretend to be someone you are not. It isn’t illegal unless you impersonate a police officer
  • email/social media – easy to interview someone in a different country, but you have to be aware of the 140 characters on Twitter


  • don’t ask closed questions, try and make the interview last longer and try to get interesting facts and opinions from the questions
  • don’t ask multiple questions in one go. Too many questions at the same time can confuse the interviewee. Take your time.
  • don’t stick to a prepared list of questions. Improvise and ask questions based on how they react to previously asked questions
  • listen carefully
  • follow up on anything interesting

Meeting your interviewee

  • be friendly and polite
  • introduce yourself and shake hands
  • be prepared

Managing the interview

  • ask the questions that your audience wants you to ask
  • don’t be afraid to ask difficult questions if its appropriate
  • be sensitive to the situation
  • don’t be afraid to ask someone to repeat something or to explain it

Coping with someone difficult

  • don’t lose your temper
  • keep the conversation going
  • wrap it up if necessary
  • remain polite

When the interview is drying up

  • don’t panic
  • refer back to the prepared questions
  • talk in general terms until you are back on track
  • think back to DOA – detail, opinion, action

How to draw the interview to a close

  • politely bring the conversation to a close
  • if its live, explain thats all you have time for
  • say thank you

Reasons to research

  • helps you decide on relevant questions therefor your article is more interesting
  • gives you something to start the interview with meaning there is no awkward starts
  • looks more professional as you aren’t unprepared
  • it provides background material for the article
  • makes the interviewee more comfortable so they may give longer and more interesting answers
  • makes the interviewee more at ease

What could go wrong

  • interviewee could think you are unprofessional
  • he/she may have to repeat information that is already in the public domain
  • interviewee could feel uncomfortable going over information
  • he/she refuses to be interviewed so you may not have an article
  • you miss out on something important

If i was to interview Sean Bean and Alex Turner, I would use this research to help better my interview and article. Here is my research:

4.1.1, 4.1.2 Media Effects – Film Censorship Debate

In class we had a debate about film censorship. We split the class into two groups, for and against, and researched into the subject, We then had the debate and here are the points made:


  • Underage children will become less violent as they can’t use/buy the game
  • We can’t always monitor what children watch or decide what could inspire or trigger violent behaviour, but censorship allows us to protect the vulnerability of children.
  •  Violent scenes can disturb children, so if a film is censored and the child is underage, they aren’t exposed to the scenes.
  • If violence is repeatedly shown in films, the audience become desensitised towards it, so children will think it is normal to be violent.
  • Age ratings can give a warning to how violent a film is, so children or their parents can decide whether or not they are okay to watch it.


  • It should be up to the parent to decide whether their child is mature enough to see the film
  • Censorship won’t stop people from seeing the film, they could watch it online or get a pirate copy version.
  • Just because the film is violent, doesn’t mean it is going to influence everyone to be violent.
  • We should have the right to choose what we want to watch – and suffer the consequences ourselves if there is any negative response to that.
  • Violence is not just shown in 15 or 18 age rated films, it is shown in PG and 12a films, so younger children are exposed to violence in films that theaters have deemed fit for children to watch

4.1.1, 4.1.2 Media Effects

There are many theories on how the media effects the audience. These theories include:

The Hypodermic Needle Theory

This is where passive audiences are “injected” with ideologies, beliefs, messages and values. Our behavior is easily and directly shaped by these media messages. This is often found in children.

The Two Step Flow

It assumes a more active audience who will discuss the media texts with each other, but also assumes that we can be passive. It proposes that we are influenced by “opinion leader” eg. parents, doctors and experts. An opinion has to be someone you trust to know a lot about the topic.

This theory consists of a media text which is seen by the audience, who then decide whether or not to see an opinion leader. A disadvantage of this theory is that it relies on the audience having an opinion leader to talk to.

Cultivation Theory

It is the repeated exposure to a media message which will lead us to become “desensitised” ie. the audience becomes less sensitive towards the subject. For example, the more exposed to a violent media message, the less it is going to effect you.

Uses and Gratification Theory

It looks at why the audience use the media and assumes the audience is more active. The audience have a variety of needs that they gratify through media eg. diversion, personal identity, personal relationship and surveillance.

Reception Theory (Stuart Hall)

The audience do not passively accept a media text. Hall proposed that there are three different audience readings. These are

  • Dominant Reading – media text interpreted in the way intended by the producer
  • Negotiated Reading – the audience accepts some of the media texts but not all aspects
  • Oppositional Reading – the audience are in conflict with the media texts

Audience readings depend on: gender, situated culture (background, upbringing, culture and lifestyle), age and experience/ knowledge. The different readings accommodates to everyone as not everybody has the same opinion. However, some people fall between the readings.

An example of this theory is with the game Grand Theft Auto, everyone has different views on the game. For example:

  • Parent’s – it depends on the parent’s opinion towards violence, sex and offensive language. If a parent doesn’t appreciate the content of the game, they are most likely not going to allow their children to play it. However, if a parent deems the game fit for their children to play it, they may allow them to play it. Parents would be either of the three readings.
  • Social Worker’s – they may think it could have a bad influence on children as the game contain violence, sex and offensive language. They would also become concerned if a child was missing school to play the video game. Social workers could be a negotiated reading, but also oppositional.
  • Teenager’s – depends on the gender, age and background of the teenager. Stereotypically, more males than females would play the game and it would most likely be older teenagers who play it as well. I would say that teenagers are all three of the readings as you would have some teenagers who would want to play it, others who would play it occasionally and others who wouldn’t be interested in it.
  • Game Creator’s – they may think it is a form of entertainment and a way to socialise with other people who also play the game. They would also think that the game is for people who enjoy that genre of game and that it is a way to make money. I think game creator’s are either a dominant reading or negotiated reading.
  • Doctor’s – they may think that is could harm someone’s mental health as it contains a lot of violence, guns, sex and offensive language. Also, they would be concerned about it harming the child’s bone structure and eye sight if they play on it for long periods of time. I think doctors are a oppositional reading or negotiated reading.


This is how sensitive the light sensor is in the camera. The higher the ISO the more sensitive the sensor is, the lower the ISO the less sensitive the sensor. The higher the sensitivity, the brighter the image.

Here are a few examples of ISO:




Here are a few images we took in groups:

DSC_0129 (1)This is an example of low ISO as the image is dark. This is because the ISO was set to 100 so the sensor was very sensitive to bright light.

DSC_0182This is an example of high ISO as the image is brighter than the previous ones. This is because the ISO was set to 3200, because the ISO was set high the photo came out grainy

Listicle – 10 films to watch on a girls night in

Have you ever organised a girls’ night in to then have no clue what film to watch?  Here is my listicle for what 10 films you should watch on a girls’ night.

  1. Mean Girls 1&2– packed full of stereotypes about american high school and school friendship groups. A great classic to watch on a night in with your friends because of the amazing story telling and impeccable humour throughout. With the likes of Lindsay Lohan, Amanda Seyfried, Rachel McAdams and Tine Fey in the first mover and Meaghan Martin, Maiara Walsh and Jennifer Stone in the second, it is a must see sequel.
  2. Pitch Perfect 1&2– a film about collegiate acapella singing groups and their road to the finals. Filled with humour, current song covers and an amazing cast, which includes Anna Kendrick, Rebel Wilson, Elizabeth Banks, Anna Camp and Brittany Snow. A must watch film for a night in dressed in onesies and a bag of popcorn.
  3. LOL – typically more for teens. A film on high school love and heart break. Grab your pjs, duvets and snack and enjoy. Cast includes Miley Cyrus, Douglas Booth, Demi Moore and Adam G. Sevani.
  4. Friends with Benefits – a relationship based on benefits quickly turns into love. You are guaranteed to laugh at the brilliant humour throughout. The cast includes Justin Timberlake, Mila Kunis and Woody Harrelson.
  5. Burlesque – filled with singing, dancing, funny jokes and an impeccable cast of Christina Aguilera, Cam Gigandet, Cher, Julianne Hough and Stanley Tucci. You are guaranteed to be singing the songs for days.
  6. White Chicks – not only just for a girls’s night. Good humour, good acting and an even better story line.
  7. Sex and the City 1&2 – if you liked the tv series, you’ll love the films. Carrie, Samantha, Charlotte and Miranda are back with their humour, designer clothing and friendship. A film friendship any female would be jealous of. Each film has a different and gripping storyline you are guaranteed to enjoy. The amazing cast includes Sarah Jessica Parker, Cynthia Nixon, Kim Cattrall and Kristin Davis.
  8. 10 things I hate about you – a film of how high school teens scheme to find their “true love”. A classic for movie nights as it has a great storyline, jokes and an amazing cast of Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Julia Stiles, Heath Ledger and Larisa Oleynik.
  9. Mamma Mia – Any ABBA lover is sure to love this film. A film on finding Sophie’s father and herself so she can get married a happy woman. A story filled with ABBA hits you will want to sing along to. Grab your friends, popcorn and your best ABBA costume and enjoy a night in with ABBA music. Includes an amazing cast of Amanda Seyfried, Meryl Streep, Pierce Brosnan, Colin Firth and Julie Walters.
  10. The Devil Wears Prada – A film about a fashion trend oblivious journalist taking a job in a fashion magazine as an assistant to the editor and chief, who struggles to cope with the fashion world. She finally succumbs to the fashion world and changes her polyester jumpers for cashmere sweaters which results in her career being more glamorous than she expected. A combination of great casting, fashion related jokes and love makes this film a worth while watch. Cast includes Meryl Streep, Anne Hathaway, Stanley Tucci, Emily Blunt and Adrian Grenier.

4.2.1, 4.2.2 Media Regulation The Editor’s Code

It is an internal media regulation, not a law but a code of conduct. It was created by the journalism industry itself. Breaking the code could result in a fine, suspension, dismissal or being black listed, but not arrested. It covers 16 areas, 8 have public interest exceptions. These include:

  • privacy
  • harassment
  • children
  • child sex cases
  • hospitals
  • reporting crime
  • clandestine devices
  • payment to criminals


Everyone is entitled to respect for his or her private and family life, home, health and correspondence. It is unacceptable to photograph individuals in a private place without consent. The internet has created a whole new dimension for privacy as once an image is released onto the internet, it is extremely hard to get back.

An example of when the code has been broken is when a photographer scaled an 8 foot wall to take photos of Jennifer Aniston sunbathing topless in her own back yard. These photos were in several publications. “Francois Navarre, owner of Los Angeles paparazzi agency X-17 paid Aniston $550,000 two years ago to settle an invasion-of-privacy lawsuit but didn’t admit to any wrongdoing.”

Another example is when Caitlyn Jenner, formally know as Bruce, was photographed before his transition in a maxi dress in front of his Malibu home smoking a cigarette. The photos were said to have been taken with a long shot lens from over a mile away. These photos were then on magazine front covers, on CNN and Daily News websites and broadcasted on a CNN segment called “Caught on Camera: Bruce Jenner’s New Look?”

4.2.1, 4.2.2 Media Regulation

Media regulation is control and guidance. it consists of rules and procedures set out by a governing body. External regulation is laws set out by the government. Internal regulation is codes of conduct set out by national organisations linked to a range of media industries.

Media producers have to be careful about the content that is shown in the media. If a regulatory body receive enough complaints regarding a media product then they have to investigate this product. Potentially these regulatory bodies have the power to withdraw from audience consumption.

Ofcom is an ethical code for television and radio covering standards, sponsorship, fairness and privacy.

Defamation Act

This is something which is published which causes serious harm to a person’s reputation. A person can sue for damages, they must be identified not always by name. It can lower the person in the minds of right-thinking members of society, injures the person’s job reputation, exposes a person to hatred.


Journalists can print defamatory comments if they can prove a legal defense.

Truth – if a statement is true and you can prove it you can print is. You must be able to back it up with evidence.

Privilege – there are some circumstances when the law says there should be freedom of speech. A reporter can write exactly what is said providing it is fair and accurate.

Honest Opinion – you can make comments as long as they are in the public interest.

The criteria is:

  • something which the public is interested
  • something based on a privilege occasion
  • something based on true facts which you can prove
  • something which is your honestly held opinion.


Consider the following scenario:

Prince Harry has been photographed at a party where police were called after reports of illegal drug abuse.

You are an Editor working on the CBBC news programme ‘Newsround’ , and you have to decide how to cover the story on the programme. How would Defamation Law and the Ofcom Broadcasting code affect how you cover this story?

According to Ofcom “The use of illegal drugs, the abuse of drugs, smoking, solvent abuse and the misuse of alcohol must not be featured in programmes made primarily for children unless there is strong editorial justification. Must generally be avoided and in any case must not be condoned, encouraged or glamorised in other programmes broadcast before the watershed (in the case of television), or when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), unless there is editorial justification;” (2015). This type of news story wouldn’t usually be broadcasted on a children’s programme, however there is justification for publishing this news story as the public need to be made aware, but for children I would have to pitch it in a children friendly manor. I would do this by not using graphic images that could disturb the children viewers. These images would include: photos of the drug, photos of someone taking the drug or video footage. Also, I wouldn’t glamorize the subject as children could be influenced by it and want to do it as a celebrity is.

If was to run this story I would ask my reporters to research and verify what happened. I would ask them to question some people who were at the scene and maybe Harry himself. This way I could broadcast the story,  if I had proof of exactly what happened, and not break the law.

Depth of Field and Aperture

Definition of Aperture

the unit of measurement that defines the size of the opening in the lens  to control the amount of light reaching the film or digital sensor.

Definition of Depth of Field

also called focus range or effective focus range, is the distance between the nearest and farthest objects in a scene that appear  sharp in an image.


The smaller the number of f/, the larger the aperture which means less things are in focus. Like this:


With the aperture of f1.8, the rose is clear and in focus but the background is blurred. This is because the majority of the lens is open. On the other hand, when the aperture is f22, everything in the photo is in focus because the majority of the lens is closed.
20130701_001-3In this photo, the aperture is  at f1.8. I know this because the first apple is in focus, but the further two aren’t.

We then went out to take our own pictures and changed the aperture. Here are a few:


This is an example of a small aperture as the majority of the image is focused and the background is blurred. The aperture is around f22.


This is an example of a large aperture as the depth of field is small. The aperture is around f2.

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